Zinc reacts with sulfuric acid to produce hydrogen. The reaction is catalysed by copper. In this practical, students can compare the rate of reaction (with and without copper) by means of the rate of production of hydrogen gas bubbles
This is a quick and easy experiment that can be done individually or in pairs.
Đang xem: Zinc and dilute sulphuric acid equation
Eye protectionTest tubes x3Test tube rackMeasuring cylinder, 10 cm3Dropping pipette
Granulated zinc, a few piecesCopper turnings or powder, a few pieces / half a spatulaDilute sulfuric acid, 1 M (IRRITANT), 15 cm3Copper(II) sulfate(VI) solution, 0.5 M, a few cm3
Wear eye protection.Dilute sulfuric acid, H2SO4(aq)(IRRITANT) – see CLEAPSS Hazcard HC098a, CLEAPSS Recipe BookRB098 andCLEAPSS L195 ‘Safer chemicals, safer reactions’.Copper(II) sulfate(VI) solution, CuSO4(aq) – see CLEAPSSHazcardHC027c andCLEAPSSRecipe Book RB031.
Put a few pieces of granulated zinc into each of the three test tubes. Try to have approximately the same amount in each test tube.Add 5 cm3of dilute sulfuric acid to test tube 1. Note the rate of production of gas bubbles.Add a few copper turnings to test tube 2. Make sure they are in contact with the zinc. Add 5 cm3of dilute sulfuric acid and note the rate of production of gas bubbles.Add 5 cm3of dilute sulfuric acid to test tube 3. Then add about 1 cm3of the copper sulfate solution using a dropping pipette. Note the rate of production of gas bubbles. Note what happens to the colour of the copper sulfate solution. Note what happens to the surface of the pieces of zinc.
If the granulated zinc pieces are shiny then the reaction in test tube 1 is slow. The reaction may be faster if the zinc is not very pure. Bubbles of hydrogen form on the surface of the zinc. The reaction is:
Zinc + Sulfuric acid → Zinc sulfate + HydrogenZn(s) + H2SO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + H2(g)
In test tube 2, copper is the catalyst for the reaction, and the reaction should be faster than in test tube 1, but may not be as fast as test tube 3.
In test tube 3, zinc displaces copper from the copper sulfate solution and the surface of the zinc goes black. The displaced copper metal then acts as a catalyst for the reaction.
Zinc + Copper sulfate → Zinc sulfate + CopperZn(s) + CuSO4(aq) → ZnSO4(aq) + Cu(s)
There may be enough hydrogen produced in test tube 3 for students to test for using a lighted splint.
This is a resource from thePractical Chemistry project, developed by the Nuffield Foundation and the Royal Society of Chemistry. This collection of over 200 practical activities demonstrates a wide range of chemical concepts and processes. Each activity contains comprehensive information for teachers and technicians, including full technical notes and step-by-step proclize.vnres. Practical Chemistry activities accompanyPractical PhysicsandPractical Biology.
Health and safety checked, 2016
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