Triolein is a symmetrical triglyceride composed of glycerol and three units of the unsaturated fatty acid (i.e., oleic acid), which could influence the cell membrane and subsequently improve the gene transfer into the target cells.
From: TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2016
Jihong Tong, … Yuji Kikuchi, in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 2001
High-oleic sunflower oil (triolein, > 90% purity) was obtained from Nippon Lever B.V., Tokyo, Japan. Sodium oleate, oleic acid, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), tri-n-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC) and polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monooleate (Tween 80, HLB: 15.0) were purchased from Wako Pure Chemical Ind., Osaka, Japan. Di-2-ethylhexyl sodium sulfosuccinate (AOT) was purchased from Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, MO, USA. All materials were reagent grade and were used without further purification.
I. Kobayashi, … Y. Kikuchi, in Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis, 2001
High-oleic sunflower oil (triolein, > 90% purity, Nippon Lever B.V., Japan) was used as the dispersed phase, and water was used as the continuous phase. Food-grade sorbitan monolaurate (SPAN20, HLB: 8.6; Wako Pure Chemical Ind., Japan) was used as surfactant in the dispersed phase.
2.2 Microchannel system
The schematic diagram and images of the silicon MC plate is shown in Fig. 1. The size was 15 mm × 15 mm × 0.5 mm, and the walls were fabricated on a 60 μm high terrace. MC were formed by tightly attached the silicon plate onto an optically-flat glass plate. Two silicon MC plates with MC equivalent diameters of 5.3 μm and 8.5 μm were employed for the MC emulsification study (Fig. 1 (c), (d)). Figure 2 schematically illustrates the experimental apparatus for the MS formation using the vertically mounted MC plate. The formed O/W-MS were expected to float up as a result of their buoyancy in the apparatus with vertically mounted MC. The MC emulsification process can be monitored through an inverted metallographic microscope (MS-511B; Seiwa Optical Industrial Co., Japan) and a 3CCD color camera (HV-C20; Hitachi Electric Co., Japan), and the images were recorded with a video cassette recorder (WV-TW2; Sony Co., Japan).
Fig. 1. Scuematic diagram and images of silicon microchannels (MC) plate; (a) surface image, (b) magnification, (c) standard MC (2600 channels), (d) large size MC (600 channels)
2.3 MicroChannel emulsification
The MC module is initially filled with the continuous phase, and the dispersed phase is fed into the module by lifting the reservoir filled with the dispersed phase. The applied pressure of the dispersed phase was gradually increased. When the pressure reached a certain value, the dispersed phase began to break through the channels, and the O/W-MS formation took place. This pressure is called breakthrough pressure. The formed MS were kept in the module, and their coalescence stability was evaluated from the time course of the average diameter and coefficient of variation of formed MS. All the experimental runs were done at room temperature. The behavior of MS formation and the size of formed MS were analyzed with an image analyzing software (MAC SCOPE, Mitani Co., Japan) from the video images recorded with a microscope video system. Over 200 particles were to determine the average diameter and coefficient of variation of formed MS.