Equal volumes, 50.0 mL, of 3.0 M hydrochloric acid and 3.0 M sodium hydroxide solutions having an initial temperature of 20.0°C react in a calorimeter. The resultant solution records a temperature of 40.0°C. The heat gained by the resultant solution can be calculated using
qsolution = m c∆T where m is the total mass of the resultant solution and c is the specific heat capacity of the resultant solution
Since the solutions are mostly water, the solutions are assumed to have a density of 1.0 g/mL and a specific heat of 4.18 J/g°C.The reaction of an aqueous hydrochloric acid solution with an aqueous sodium hydroxide solution is represented by theneutralization chemical equation
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) → NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + heat
HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) –> NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) + Energy
Thermochemistry determine the heat exchanged at constant pressure,
q = m c∆T.
Calculating the limiting reactant, the change in enthalpy of the reaction,∆Hrxn, can be determined since the reaction was conducted under conditions of constant pressure
∆Hrxn= qrxn / # moles of limiting reactant
This reaction is classified as an exothermic reaction.
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This demonstration is usually performed when topics in thermochemistry or thermodynamics are being discussed. The reaction of HCl(aq), a strong acid, with NaOH(aq), a strong base, is an exothermic reaction. The big idea for most calorimetry themed demonstrations is energy is conserved. Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but it can be exchanged.
qlost+qgain= 0 or qreleased+qgain= 0
This demonstration also illustrates how the formation of water (one of the driving forces) can act to drive a reaction to spontaneity.This is a neutralization reaction with the hydroxide ion acting as the base and the hydronium ion acting as the acid.
Making this demonstration interactive – active learning
The instructor should “frame” the demonstration and guide the discussion. After students observe the initial conditions of the solutions and observe the results of the demonstration, it is important for the students to be allowed to discuss what gains heat and what loses heat in this chemical process before the instructors tells the students the answers. Students should be asked to identify what gains heat and what looses heat – use a series of ClickerQuestions. Ask “What gains heat?” “How much energy, as heat, is released or gained by the solution?” “How much energy, as heat, is released or gained by the reaction?” “What are the primary species present in each solution before the reaction?” “What are the species present in the solution after the reaction?” “How is the heat manifested – what are the water molecules doing differently while the reaction occurs?”
Student difficulties with thermochemistry concepts
Students have difficulty distinguishing the terms temperature and heat. Students have difficulty with the idea that the bulk material they can see is NOT the chemical reaction. A chemical reaction has no mass, has no specific heat, and does not change temperature. A chemical reaction consists of bonds breaking and bonds forming and this is a form of potential energy. In this demonstration, the chemical reaction releases heat to the immediate the surroundings. The water and dissolved chemicals gain heat – heat is transferred into the solution, which is mostlywater. gained heat. When heat is transferred into the surroundings, the solution, from the chemical reaction, the solution increases in temperature. The water molecules being formed by the reaction have higher kinetic energy compare to the original water molecules in the solution. The newly formed water moleculescollide with the original water molecules causing some of the original water molecules to move faster, there is a net increase in kinetic energy of the water molecules.
Kinetic energy = (1/2mv2)average = (3/2) kT T is the temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant
Students have a difficult time understanding that through the vibration and movement of atoms and or molecules heat is exchanged and this is a form of kinetic energy.
There is a computer animation available depicting the rapid movement of newly formed water molecules as a result of an acid-base reaction to accompany this demonstration.
There is a calorimetry computer simulation available to accompany this demonstration.
There is an in-class POGIL-like activity to accompany this demonstration.
There are a set of interactive guided-inquiry Power Point slides to accompany this demonstration.
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Showing acid-base neutralization calorimetry demonstration, the computer animation at the particle level, and the chemical equations helps students connect the macroscopic, microscopic (particle), and symbolic levels of representation – Alex Johnstone'sTriangle – which leads to a more in-depth understanding of the concepts associated with thermochemistry.
Calorimetry Computer Simulation
©2016Greenbowe, Abraham,GelderChemistry Education Instructional Resources.University of Oregon, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma, Pearson
After observing the demonstration and doing the in-class activities, students should be able to
1. Identify the system and the surroundings for a given calorimetry experiment.
2. Identify what is releasing heat and what is gaining heat for a given calorimetry experiment.
3. Calculate the heat gained or released by a solution, qsolution, involved in a given calorimetry experiment: total mass of the solution, specific heat of the solution, change in temperature of the solution:q = m c∆T
4. Apply the law of conservation of energy to calorimeter experiments,qreaction+qsolution= 0
5. If the calorimetry experiment is carried out under constant pressure conditions, calculate∆H for the reaction.
6. Given either the initial and final temperature measurements of a solution or the sign of the∆Hrxn, identify if a reaction is endothermic or exothermic.
7. Given the changein enthalpy for a reaction, the amounts of reactants, and a balanced chemical equation, calculate the heat exchanged for a reaction.