2 Al + 3 Cl2 ↠ 2 Alcl3, Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

This page is about anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL), a type of T-cell lymphoma.

Đang xem: 2 al + 3 cl2 → 2 alcl3

On this page

What is ALCL?

Who gets it?

Symptoms

Treatment

Relapsed and refractory ALCL

Research and targeted treatments

What is ALCL?

Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is a type of T-cell lymphoma – a non-Hodgkin lymphoma that develops from white blood cells called T cells. Under a microscope, the cancerous cells in ALCL look large, undeveloped and very abnormal (‘anaplastic’).

There are four main types of ALCL. They have complicated names based on their features and the types of proteins they make:

ALK-negative ALCL (also known as ALK- ALCL) is a high-grade lymphoma that accounts for around 3 in every 10 cases of ALCL. The abnormal T cells do not make the ALK protein – they test negative for ALK.

Back to top

Who gets ALCL?

ALCL is rare. Each year, fewer than 200 people are diagnosed with ALCL in the UK.

Different types of ALCL usually affect different groups of people:

ALK-positive ALCL usually affects children and young adults, commonly in their 30s. It affects three times more males than females.ALK-negative ALCL tends to affect older adults, typically around 40 to 65 years old. It is slightly more common in men than women.Breast implant-associated ALCL is extremely rare. It affects around 80 in every million people who have had breast implants. It is more common in people with implants that have a rough, textured surface than people with smooth implants. It typically develops 8 to 10 years after having the implant but it can develop sooner.

If you are under 25 and have been diagnosed with ALCL, or if you have a child who has been diagnosed with ALCL, you might find our information on lymphoma in children and young people useful.

READ:  Cho Phản Ứng Hóa Học: Cl2 + Koh + Cl2 = Kcl + Kclo3 + H2O Kcl Kclo3

Back to top

Symptoms of ALCL

People with ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL typically have swollen lymph nodes and B symptoms (fevers, night sweats and weight loss). ALCL is also commonly found outside the lymph nodes (extranodal areas), where it can cause many different symptoms.

Lymphoma affecting the gut (gastrointestinal system) might cause bloating, pain, sickness, diarrhoea or vomiting.If you have lymphoma in your chest, you might feel short of breath, develop a cough or have pain or a feeling of pressure in your chest.You might develop a rash.

Most people with ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL are diagnosed at an advanced stage (stage 3 or 4), which means the lymphoma affects several parts of the body.

People with breast implant-associated ALCL typically develop a build-up of fluid or a lump around the implant. It can be uncomfortable. This type of ALCL does not usually spread outside the affected breast. It is usually diagnosed at an early stage (stage 1 or 2).

My illness had come on quickly at the beginning of the year. I was so exhausted, I was having to drag myself to school to pick my daughter up. I also had a cough that wouldn’t go away, a persistently high temperature, swollen lymph nodes and night sweats. I was also out of breath.Katherine, diagnosed with ALCL in 2016

Back to top

Treatment of ALCL

The treatment you need depends on what type of ALCL you have.

ALK-positive and ALK-negative ALCL

ALCL is rare. This makes it difficult to determine which treatment gives the best outcome. Several targeted drugs are being tested in clinical trials. Your doctor might ask you if you would like to take part in a clinical trial to help test new treatments and to find out what the best treatment is for ALCL.

If you don’t want to take part in a clinical trial, or if there isn’t one that is suitable for you, you are likely to be treated with chemotherapy. The most common chemotherapy regimen used for ALCL is CHOP:

READ:  Axit Metacrylic Có Công Thức Cấu Tạo Là Gì Vậy? Axit Metacrylic Là Gì

You might have a chemotherapy drug called etoposide in addition to CHOP (CHEOP), or you might have a different chemotherapy regimen altogether. The number of cycles and the exact type of chemotherapy you have depends on several factors like your age, the stage of your lymphoma and whether it is ALK-positive or ALK-negative. Some people with early-stage ALK-positive ALCL might also have radiotherapy to the affected area.

A targeted drug called brentuximab vedotin has recently been licensed, in combination with cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin and prednisolone (CHP), to treat adults with ALCL who have not been treated before. It is available on the NHS throughout the UK.

Brentuximab vedotin is a strong anti-cancer drug joined to an antibody that binds to a protein called CD30 on the surface of T cells. This carries the drug directly to the T cells and kills them.

Xem thêm: Cách Mạng Công Nghiệp 4.0 Cơ Hội Và Thách Thức, Cách Mạng Công Nghiệp 4

If you have ALK-negative ALCL and you respond to chemotherapy, your doctor might recommend that you have a self (autologous) stem cell transplant. This gives you a better chance of staying in remission (no evidence of lymphoma). If you have ALK-positive ALCL, you might not need a stem cell transplant.

Breast implant-associated ALCL

If you have breast implant-associated ALCL, you have the implant and any lumps or fluid removed by surgery. This might be all the treatment you need. You are then followed-up carefully to make sure all the lymphoma has been removed. If the lymphoma is more widespread, you are likely to have chemotherapy, usually with CHOP.

Back to top

Relapsed and refractory ALCL

If your lymphoma doesn’t respond (refractory) or comes back (relapses) after treatment, you might be treated with brentuximab vedotin. If brentuximab vedotin is not suitable for you, or if it is not available in your area, you might have a different chemotherapy regimen or a targeted drug, usually through a clinical trial.

If you respond to more treatment and you are fit enough, you might have a donor (allogeneic) stem cell transplant to increase your chance of staying in remission.

READ:  How Cucl And Cucl2 Insert Into C Opper(I) Chloride, How Cucl And Cucl2 Insert Into C

Back to top

Research and targeted treatments

Many new treatments are being tested to see if they can help people with T-cell lymphoma. Drugs that are being tested in ALCL include:

Some of these might be available to you through a clinical trial. If you are interested in taking part in a clinical trial, ask your doctor if there is a trial that might be suitable for you. To find out more about clinical trials or search for a trial that might be suitable for you, visit Lymphoma TrialsLink.

Back to top

Armitage JO, et al. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Lancet, 2017. 390: 298–310.

Armitage JO. The aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphomas: 2015. American Journal of Hematology, 2015. 90: 665–673.

d’Amore F, et al. Peripheral T-cell lymphomas: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Annals of Oncology, 2015. 26 (Supplement 5): v108–v115.

Dearden CE, et al. Guidelines for the management of mature T-cell and NK-cell neoplasms (excluding cutaneous T-cell lymphoma). British Journal of Haematology, 2011. 153: 451–485.

Jiang M, et al. Lymphoma classification update: T-cell lymphomas, Hodgkin lymphomas, and histiocytic/dendritic cell neoplasms. Expert Reviews in Hematology, 2017. 10: 239–249.

Johnson L, et al. Breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma: The UK experience. Recommendations on its management and implications for informed consent. European Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2017. 43: 1393–1401.

Jones JL, et al. Breast implant associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL): an overview of presentation and pathogenesis and guidelines for pathological diagnosis and management. Histopathology, 2019. doi: 10.1111/his.13932 .

Ma H, Abdul-Hay M. T‑cell lymphomas, a challenging disease: types, treatments, and future. International Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2017. 22: 18–51.

Xem thêm: The World'S Strongest Acid Hexahydrate, Fluoroantimonic Acid

Swerdlow SH, et al. The 2016 revision of the World Health lize.vnanization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. Blood, 2016. 127: 2375–2390.

Xem thêm bài viết thuộc chuyên mục: Hóa học

Bài viết hay nhất